Nepal a small Himalayan landlocked country lying between India and the Tibetan Autonomous Region of China occupies 0.1% of the globe. The elevation ranges above sea level from 60 meters at Kanchan Kanan to Mount Everest (8848m) highest point of the earth. In terms of bio-diversity Nepal has wide-range ecosystem, dense alpine forests swarmed with diverse wildlife, frozen valleys, deep gorges, wind-swept deserts fast rivers, lakes and glacial lakes that originate in the Himalayas with greatest peaks of the world The multiplicity in Nepal’s topography provides home to wildlife like tigers, rhinos, monkeys, bears, yaks, leopards and different species of insects and birds. Nepal is a home to almost 10 percent of the world’s bird species. The country has managed to preserve some endangered species of Asia in its extensive parks and protected natural habitats.
Himalayan Region: The altitude of this region ranges between 4877 m. – 8848 m. It includes 8 of the highest 14 summits in the world which exceed altitude of 8000 meters.
Mountain Region: This region comprise of about 64 percent of total land area. It is created by the
Mahabharat range that soars up to 4877 meter and the lower Churia range
Terai Region: The low-land Terai occupies about 17 percent of the total land area of the country.
Many people have said about Nepal
The country of Mount Everest, Roof top of the world, Top Eight highest mountain and 240 peaks exceeding 6094 meters, land of living Goddess, Melting pot of Hinduism and Buddhism, Country of non-stop festivals, Himalayan pilgrimage, “The wildest dreams of Kew” Nature’s amphitheatre, heat of Shangri-la, land of yak and yeti, living cultural museum of the world, anthropological treasure land, ecologists dreamland.
• As per the size the country possess one of the highest concentration and distribution of bio-diversity
• Land of the living goddess
• The country of Mount Everest
• Himalayas pilgrimage
• Land of brave Gorkhas
• Glory of Asia ‘s Past
• Ultimate Destination pf Mysticism & Exoticism.
• City of Golden Pagodas & Parasols.
• Birth place of Janaki
• Land of Eight- Thousanders
• Land of 1047 Lamas tries and Monasteries
• Country of Hidden valley and crystals Mountains
• Birth place of Apostle of Peace- Lord Buddha
• Living cultural museum of the world
• A city which has one of the largest concentration of Buddhist Icons & shrines
• Abodes of multitude of Gods and Goddess.
• Only country partciping Mahayana/Bajrayana Tantrik Buddhism.
• Anthropological Treasure Land .
• Only country still practicing Bonpo – Pre Buddhistic Spiritism.
• Country of Tharus wearing richest tribal jewellery comprising 32 items weighting seven kgs.
• The country of as many temples as many houses, as many gods and as many peoples.
• The country which has more festivals than days of the year.
• Only cherry that flowers winter.
• Some of the world’s highest village.
• 91 plants that are named after Nepal (Nepalence)
• Ecologist’ dreamland
• And a country of high Mountains consisting 240 peaks exceeding 6094 meters
• Melting pot of Hinduism & Buddhism
• country of nonstop festivals
• The wildest dreams of kew.
• Nature’s Amphitheatre.
• Roof or the world
• Land of Yak & Yeti
Between India & the Tibetan Autonomous region of the Peoples’ of Republic China
Area Capital City National Birds National Flowers
1, 47,181 Sq. Kms. Kathmandu Impean Pheasant ( Danfe) Rhododendron-Arboreum ( Lali Gurans)
Nepal, a sovereign independent kingdom, (between 80° 4′ and 88° 12′ East longitude and 26° 22′ and 30° 27′ North latitude) is bounded on the North by the Tibet Autonomous Region of the People’s Republic of China, the East-South and West by India. The length of the Kingdom is 885 kilometers east-west, and it’s breadth varies from 145-241 kilometers north-south. The country can be divided into three main geographical regions. From the world’s deepest gorge Kali-Gandaki to Highest point on earth The Mt. Everest.
Himalayan Region: The altitude of this region ranges between 4877 m. – 8848 m. m. It includes 8 of the higest 14 summits in
The world, which exceed altitude of 8000 meters including, Annapurna, Dhaulagiri and others.
Mountain Region: This region accounts for about 64 percent of total land area. The Mahabharat range that soars up to 4877
Meter and the lower Churia range from it.
Terai Region: The low-land Terai occupies about 17 percent of the total land area of the country. There is no seasonal constraint on traveling in and through Nepal. Even in December and January, when the winter is at its severest, there are compensating bright sun and brilliant views.
History of Nepal:
Nepal has seen many rulers and ruling dynasties. The earliest rulers were the Kirantis who ruled from 9th century B.C. to 1st century A.D. Legends and chronicles mention that the Indian Emperor Ashoka had come to Nepal and visited Lumbini, the place where the Buddha was born, and where he erected a huge stone pillar to commemorate his visit to that spot. The Kirants were replaced by Licchavis who, according to the earliest evidences in inscriptions of the 5th century A.D. found in the courtyard of Changunarayan temple which is about 15 km north east of Kathmandu, ruled this country from 1st century to 9th century A.D. This period is noted for the many temples and fine sculptures built around the Kathmandu valley.
The Licchavis were followed by the Thakuris, and then came the Malla dynasty. The Mallas ruled focusing mainly on the Kathmandu Valley which has been the residence for most Nepali rulers from time immemorial. No other part of Nepal is as rich in cultural heritage as Kathmandu. Thanks to the exceptionally talented crafts-men, who dedicated themselves to construct the many temples and statues, we have seven world heritage sites in the Kathmandu Valley itself. In the 14th century A.D. King Jayasthiti Malla established a rigid social order. His grandson tried in every way to protect his country from suspected enemy states. Unfortunately, all his efforts were fruitless, everything went beyond his control and the country eventually divided up into 50 small feudal states including the three major ones in the valley
then came the Shah dynasty. King Prithvi Narayan Shah who annexed small principalities including three states in the Kathmandu Valley and unified Nepal in a single kingdom Recognizing the threat of the British Raj in India, he dismissed European missionaries from the country and for more than a century, Nepal remained in isolation. During the mid-19th century Jung Bahadur Rana became Nepal’s first prime minister to wield absolute power. The Ranas were overthrown in a democracy movement of the early 1950s. In 1768 A.D. the Shah dynasty ascended the throne of the unified kingdom. His Majesty King Birendra Bir Bikram Shah Dev is eleventh King & Gyanendra Bir Bikram Shah Dev in the Shah dynasty
The new democratic constitution of the kingdom was promulgated on November 9, 1990 . Nepal is one of the founder members of South Asian Association for Regional Cooperation SAARC of which the third summit was held in Kathmandu in Nov. 1987.
Today, Nepal enjoys a multiparty democratic system
People and customs
Nepal has a population of 26,620,809 recorded on 2011. 81.3% percent of Nepalis follow Hinduism, 9.0%percent follow Buddhism and 4.4% percent follow Islam. 3.0% Percent follow Yumaism . 1.4 % percent follows Christianity. And 0.9% percent follows other the population comprises various groups of different races which are further divided into different castes. The distinction in caste and ethnicity is understood more easily with a view of customary layout of the population.
Some of the main groups are: Gurungs and Magars who live mainly in the western region. Rais, Limbus and Sunwars who live in the eastern mid hills. Sherpas, Manangpas and Lopas who live near the mountains of Everest, Annapurna and Mustang respectively ; Newarswho live in and around the capital valley of Kathmandu; Tharus, Yadavas, Satar, Rajvanshis and Dhimals who live in the Terai region; and Brahmins, Chhetris and Thakuris generally spread over all parts of the country.
The Northern Himalayan People
In the northern region of the Himalayas are the Tibetan-speaking groups namely Sherpas, Dolpalis, Lopas, Baragaonlis, Manangis . The Sherpas are mainly found in the east of Solu and Khumbu region; the Baragaonlis and Lopas live in the semi-deserted areas of Upper and Lower Mustang in the Tibetan rain-shadow area; the Managis live in Manang district area; while the Dolpalis live in Dolpa district of West Nepal, one of the highest settlements on earth at 4,000 meters.
The Middle Hills and Valley People
Several ethnic groups live together in harmony in the middle hills and valleys. Among them are the Magars, Gurungs, Tamangs, Sunuwars, Newars, Thakalis, Chepangs and majority of Brahmans and Chhetris. The Brahmans and Chhetris have long dominance in all pervading social, religious and political realms. There are also some occupational castes namely: Damai (tailor), Sarki (cobbler), Kami (blacksmith) and Sunar (goldsmiths). Though, there exist numerous dialects, the language of unification is the national language, Nepali.
Ethnic Diversity in the Kathmandu Valley
Kathmandu Valley represents a cultural cauldron of the country, where, people from varied backgrounds have come together to present a melting pot. The natives of the Kathmandu Valley are the Newars. Newari culture is an integration of both Hinduism and Buddhism. The Newars of Kathmandu Valley were traders or farmers by occupation in the old days.
The Terai People
The main ethnic groups in Terai are Tharus, Darai, Kumhal, Majhi and other groups that have roots in India . They speak north Indian dialects like Maithili, Bhojpuri. Owing to the fertile plains of Terai, most inhabitants live on agriculture. There are, however, some occupational castes like Majhi (fisherman), Kumhal (potter) and Danuwar (cart driver)
Religion and Culture
Hinduism and Buddhism constitute two major religions of Nepal. A remarkable feature of Nepal is the religious homogeneity that exists, particularly between the Hindu and Buddhist communities. Apart from the Hindus and Buddhists, Muslim from the third largest religious group the exquisite medieval Art & Architecture of the Kathmandu Valley vividly reflect the artistic ingenuity and the religious tradition of the people.
The Caste System
The caste system is still intact today but the rules are not as rigid as they were in the past. Because of western education, contact with foreigners, media, and modern communications, people are progressive in many aspects. In 1962, a law was passed making it illegal to discriminate against the untouchable castes. Hence all castes are equally treated by the law. Education is free and open to all castes
Nepali is the prominent official language of Nepal, with over 30 other ethnic languages spoken as mother-tongues in different parts of the country. Here prevails also many other regional dialects. Nepali is of the Indo-Aryan family of languages brought from central Asia by the Aryans about 1500 BC. The original Old Indo-Aryan language gave rise to Sanskrit from which Nepali was derived.
In common with Hindi, Nepali uses the Devanagri script (the script of the city of the gods, sometimes known as Nagari) which was itself derived from the Brahmi script of ancient India.
In Kathmandu at the Bishwa Bhasha Campus (at Bhrikutimandap) of Tribhuvan University provides Nepali (spoken and Devanagari script), Newari, Sanskrit and Tibetan languages for foreign students. At Tribhuvan University in Kirtipur there is the Department of Nepali Studies, where BA and MA studies in Nepali language can be pursued. Sanskrit is also taught in the medical colleges, as many of the texts for natural medicines (ayurvedic and homoeopathic) are written in Sanskrit.
With all above traditional languages English is practiced as Internationally Official Language and Nepalese are too prone to learn and speak with other languages such as French, German, Spanish, Japanese and Korean etc for the sake of wide tourism.
Vegetation and Wildlife
Nepal possesses some of the most outstanding bio-diversity in the world, ranging from sub-tropical Rain forests to Alpine deserts. There are more than 6000 flowering plant species in Nepal . There are several native plants which are originated in Nepal . Himalayan Rhododendron is the most famous one.
Wildlife: Nepal has 30 species of large wild animals and approximately 180 species of mammals .The one horned rhinoceros, Royal Bengal tiger, crocodile, snow leopard, red panda, Himalayan black bear, and many other wild animals are found in the forests of Nepal . Nepal has 840 different species of wet-land, migratory and residential birds
Climate: (4 Seasons in Nepal)
Spring (March-May), Dusty rain showers
Summer (June – August), Monsoon, hills turn lush/green
Autumn (September-November), cool clear skies, trekking season
Winter (December-February), Chilly night, foggy in early morning.
Autumn: September, October and November are considered the best times of the year. During this period the climate is dry offer clearest skies, least rain, the festivities of harvest season and mild with temperature fluctuating between 20*C to 30*C.
Winter: Winter starts from December, January, and February are cool and mostly clear. Morning and evening are very cold while the afternoon is pretty sunny. The temperature during these months rises from 15*C to 20*C
Spring: Spring starts from March, April, and May are warm months, though it is often hazy. The temperature of this season fluctuates between 20*C to 30*c.
Summer: Summer starts from June, July and August. These are also the pre-monsoon and monsoon months with occasional evening-thunderstorms and hot temperature, which time it rains almost every day and most of the Himalayas are hidden behind the clouds.
September sees the end of the monsoon. The whole country is beautifully green and trekking season starts again.
National anthem song: